The Code of Blood
by Chuck Missler
The famed double-helix DNA typically includes three billion rungs of a
digital, error-correcting code. A digital (symbolic) code derives its
significance from arbitrary, but consistent, definitions. A digital
language requires context; conventions external to the code itself. An
effective digital code demands careful, skillful design.
The genetic alphabet is a 3-out-of-4 design employing four nitrogenous bases:
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine for DNA (Uracil is substituted for
Thymine in the RNA). These bases will be abbreviated as A,
U, G, and C in the chart in Figure 1. Sugar molecules (ribose or
deoxyribose) bind the chemical alphabet; phosphate molecules bind the sugar
molecules together to form the now- famous double helix.
There are 20 amino acids that are assembled into
the over 100,000 various functional proteins observed. The DNA/RNA code is shown in
The genetic alphabet of the four nitrogenous bases are taken three at a time to
form one of 64 possible triplets. Each triplet has a specific meaning: 61
specify one of the 20 amino acids; three are used as punctuation codes to parse
its sentences. UAA, UAG, and UGA are used as "stop" codes; GUA and GUG,
depending upon their position in the molecule, can also act as "start"
There is also redundancy, in the form of homonyms (alternative codes for a
given amino acid), to improve its error-correction
(It is interesting that evidence to date indicates that this alphabet and its
associated codes have not changed throughout the history of the earth.)
These codes are stored in the DNA "master blueprint" and copied by
transcription machinery into the working copy RNA, which is then translated into
the "sentence" which assembles the amino acids into the necessary
proteins. The translation process is similar to a magnetic recording head
reading a computer tape. Most proteins involve a specific amino acid chain
between 100 to 500 amino acids long.
The Transcription Process
Recent articles reviewed the remarkable transcription
While the unwinding and rewinding of the DNA takes place, an equally
sophisticated process of reading the DNA code and "writing" new strands
occurs. The process involves the production and use of messenger
The DNA coding sequences are separated by intervening
sequences, which must be detected and removed. (These are similar to the
"equidistant letter sequences" that we find hidden in the Biblical texts.2 ) The remaining coding sequences
are then spliced together
to form the messenger RNA molecule.3
An Example of
The DNA/RNA coding system must arrange the amino acids into specific
sequences to form each required protein. While similar to letters of an
alphabet in sentences, only a specific sequence of amino acids will produce the
essential result. The precision of this sequence is its specificity.
Since they involve a fixed alphabet in very specific sequence, it is quite
straightforward to mathematically analyze the specificity.
One of the most important proteins - perhaps the most important - is
hemoglobin. It is responsible for both the red color of our blood and for
the oxygen chemistry based on our breathing. TheTorah notes that
"life is in the blood."4
The formula for hemoglobin is detailed in
In the chart there is only one specific sequence of the amino acids that is
hemoglobin. Hemoglobinopathy occurs if even one amino acid is replaced; it
is usually lethal. (Sickle cell anemia being but one example.)
Using the formula for alternate linear arrangements6of these amino acids indicates that there are about 10650 permutations possible, but only one of them is hemoglobin.
(The actual number is 7.4 x 10654. There are
indications that some of the amino acid positions may be "neutral," like spaces,
which are less significant. The current research indicates that these may
be up to 10% of such positions, which would indicate that there are only 516
rather than 574 significant amino acid positions, in which case the specificity
would reduce to 7.9 x 10503.)7
This is still a pretty good finite approximation for
infinity! The likelihood of this specific sequence occurring by chance is
(In speculating about obtaining this precise sequence by 10500+ random
trials, remember that there have been only about 1017 seconds in the generally
accepted age of the universe, so you would have had to work rather
quickly. Also, realize that there are only about 10 66 atoms in the
universe, so you can't waste material on false tries!)
Think about it. It isn't just unlikely; it really
is impossible. It was very skillfully designed. If you really want
to be a skeptic, you need to practice like the Red Queen in Alice Through
the Looking Glass
"I practice believing impossible things at least twice day...[check]"
It takes a lot of commitment to blindness and fallacies to be an
atheist. There are, of course, no dead atheists (James 2:19).
If someone claims to be an atheist, ask him to prove it. It must include a
claim to know everything - since God could be hiding behind any area of
knowledge the claimant has overlooked...
I personally don't have the guts to gamble my eternity that the Bible might
- See "Unraveling DNA's Design," Personal
UPDATE, 12/97, p.14-17, excerpted from Creation Ex Nihilo Technical
- See Chuck's briefing package Cosmic Codes:
Hidden Messages from the Edge of Eternity
- Denton, p.242-243.
- Leviticus 17:11.
- Derived from C. U. M. Smit, Molecular
Biology, p.109, (q.v. David Foster, The Philosophical Scientists
, Dorset Press, New York, 1985, p.80.)
- The formula for n things, p being a
like of one kind, q alike of another kind, and r alike of
another kind, etc., then the total number of ways in which all the n
things can be arranged so that no arrangement is repeated is N =
n!/(p! x q! x r!...), where "!" indicates a factorial.
- In their book Evolution from Space, Sir
Fred Hoyle and Professor N. C. Wickramasinghe use very similar arguments, but
use a simplified formula for estimating biological specificities,
20n where 20 represents the alternative possible amino acids and
the number of amino acids in the
chain. This estimate is less accurate than the one shown which takes into
account the known proportions of each. Their formula results in an even
higher estimates of 10850 and 10654, respectively.
- "Absurd" has a mathematical definition in physics: any probability
less than 1 in 1050 is, by definition, absurd.